COMERCIO EXTERIOR: 4

Cuadro 331
COSTA RICA: ÍNDICE DE APERTURA COMERCIAL DE 1920 A 1984 E ÍNDICE DE ESFUERZO DE COMERCIAL PER CÁPITA DE 1883 A 2000











AñoPIB en $ EEUU de 1970X (1) en millones $ EEUU de 1970M (1) en millones $ EEUU de 1970X+M en millones $EEUU de 1970Indice de apertura X+M/PIB en $EEUU (2)X (1) en millones $EEUU corrientesM (1) en millones $ EEUU corrientesX+M en millones $EEUU corrientesPoblación total en millonesÍndice de Esfuerzo Comercial (3) en $EEUU
1883




2,062,174,23

1884




3,553,527,07

1885




2,543,666,200,2425,51
1886




2,263,545,80

1887




4,695,6010,29

1888




4,025,209,22

1889




4,586,3110,89

1890




9,439,4318,46

1891




8,3211,3619,68

1892




5,155,9411,09

1893




4,095,579,66

1894




4,383,557,93

1895




4,613,428,03

1896




5,144,369,50

1897




5,145,1310,27

1898




4,493,387,87

1899




3,773,707,47

1900




5,986,0011,98

1901




5,764,3910,15

1902




5,714,9210,63

1903




7,395,5112,90

1904




7,136,0313,160,3834,63
1905




8,375,3913,760,3935,28
1906




9,067,6216,680,4041,70
1907




9,227,9717,190,4141,93
1908




7,735,6013,330,4231,74
1909




8,296,2014,490,4333,70
1910




8,548,0516,590,4437,70
1911




9,018,9617,970,4539,93
1912




10,1110,2220,330,4644,29
1913




10,478,8119,280,4641,55
1914




10,767,4818,240,4738,97
1915




8,353,7512,100,4825,21
1916




9,425,5915,010,4930,95
1917




6,573,199,760,5019,52
1918




4,631,806,430,5112,61
1919




9,734,1213,850,5226,63
1920119,2058,7046,90105,6089,0012,4617,8030,260,5357,09
1921116,7056,0024,2080,2069,0011,889,2021,08

1922127,1062,1021,9084,0066,0014,228,3022,52

1923117,5047,9025,8073,7063,0012,809,8022,600,5045,20
1924134,4065,0031,6096,6072,0016,5612,0028,56

1925133,9060,2036,4096,6072,0016,4213,8230,24

1926148,1058,3038,2096,5065,0018,9613,8332,790,5361,87
1927134,4060,0048,60108,6081,0018,0616,3134,370,4773,00
1928141,4058,1054,60112,7080,0019,6417,8937,53

1929135,6060,1062,40122,5090,0018,2020,1638,36

1930142,2066,8037,00103,8073,0016,3310,8527,18

1931140,4062,8034,4097,2069,0014,288,6822,96

1932129,1047,1024,1071,2055,008,535,4513,98

1933153,8069,5027,9097,4063,0010,686,3517,03

1934135,6047,5034,4081,9060,008,708,7217,42

1935146,9056,9030,7087,6060,008,257,9816,23

1936156,7055,1035,3090,4058,008,829,3918,21

1937182,7072,4041,90114,3063,0011,5111,8823,39

1938193,6066,7046,90113,6059,0010,1412,6222,76

1939199,2059,6060,30119,9060,009,0816,8925,97

1940191,1049,7051,90101,6053,007,4816,8424,32

1941213,9061,0050,30111,3052,0010,2317,9928,22

1942191,8055,3033,5088,8046,0010,5712,2922,86

1943191,5059,6043,60103,2054,0012,4320,3932,82

1944173,5049,7046,9096,6056,0010,5321,5432,07

1945197,6052,5051,90104,4053,0011,6126,9538,56

1946218,4051,1060,30111,4051,0014,3433,0447,38

1947259,9068,1073,70141,8055,0031,0648,0879,14

1948274,7088,0057,00145,0053,0045,9642,3488,30

1949285,8082,3062,00144,3050,0048,1943,3591,54

1950297,6078,1070,40148,5049,9055,5846,02101,600,80126,80
1951305,5079,5078,80158,3051,8263,4155,73119,14

1952342,5096,5090,50187,0054,6073,3567,86141,21

1953394,6096,50107,20203,7051,6280,1573,66153,81

1954397,9088,00112,30200,3050,3484,7080,02164,72

1955443,9092,20120,60212,8047,9480,9087,47168,37

1956431,2071,00124,00195,0045,2267,4591,20158,65

1957467,9093,70137,40231,1049,3983,36102,80186,16

1958525,90120,60137,40258,0049,0691,9099,30191,20

1959545,20110,70140,70251,4046,1176,68102,70179,38

1960592,70129,10154,10283,2047,7885,83110,40196,23

1961617,30127,70147,50275,2044,5884,15107,20191,35

1962655,10143,30155,80299,1045,6692,97113,30206,27

1963711,30141,90167,60309,5043,5195,02123,80218,821,34163,30
1964745,90157,50194,40351,9047,18113,90138,60252,50

1965813,50160,40249,70410,1050,41111,82178,20290,02

1966876,80195,90251,30447,2051,00135,51178,50314,01

1967930,50217,10258,00475,1051,06143,78190,70334,48

19681.002,10264,00289,90553,9055,27170,82213,90384,72

19691.068,80288,10325,10613,2057,37189,71245,10434,81

19701.139,40300,90411,20712,1062,50231,16316,70547,86

19711.214,50317,70441,90759,6062,54225,30349,70575,00

19721.321,40377,00442,30819,3062,00278,80372,70651,50

19731.424,50387,80460,80848,6059,57344,80455,30800,101,87427,40
19741.502,90430,20501,60931,8062,00440,20719,701.159,90

19751.534,50413,40476,90890,3058,02493,10694,001.187,10

19761.619,10436,30531,70968,0059,79592,70770,401.363,10

19771.763,30426,90639,301.066,2060,00828,001.021,401.849,40

19781.873,90457,00604,301.061,3057,00863,501.165,702.029,20

19791.966,40473,60679,701.153,3059,00934,301.396,802.331,10

19801.981,20445,90633,501.079,4054,481.001,601.523,802.525,40

19811.936,40496,10478,60974,7050,001.007,001.208,502.215,50

19821.795,30455,20334,30789,5044,00870,40893,201.763,60

19831.837,40466,60360,70827,3045,00961,101.057,102.018,202,42835,30
19841.953,50486,20409,00895,2045,001.123,801.182,602.306,40

1985



63,001.081,601.203,802.285,40

1986




1.233,001.276,502.509,50

1987




1.302,301.544,802.847,10

1988




1.448,801.629,503.078,30

1989




1.694,102.007,903.702,00

1990



75,001.768,002.304,904.072,90

1991



77,001.899,302.308,404.207,70

1992



81,002.385,202.948,905.334,10

1993



84,002.626,503.514,906.141,40

1994



83,002.878,203.788,406.666,60

1995



86,003.475,904.089,507.565,40

1996



92,003.758,404.326,708.085,10

1997



98,004.205,504.969,709.175,20

1998



83,005.525,606.238,7011.764,30

1999



82,006.662,406.354,6013.017,00

2000



77,005.849,706.388,5012.238,203,813.212,00
2001



71,005.021,406.568,6011.590,00

2002



74,005.252,807.187,8012.440,60

2003




6.101,407.643,1013.744,50

Notas:
(1) b&s: bienes y servicios.
(2) Del año 1990 al 2002 los cálculos se basan en PIB, X y M en millones de colones corrientes.
(3) El cálculo del Índice de Esfuerzo Comercial es equivalente a X+M per cápita.
Fuentes:
1890-1910 - ONE (1912) Resúmenes Estadísticos. Datos de X y M en pesos y colones, convertidos a $EEUU a la T/C en dólares corrientes.
1911- 1919 - DGE Informes Anuales. Datos en colones, convertidos a $EEUU a la T/C, idem.
1920-1949 - Bulmer-Thomas (1987) The Political Economy of Central America since 1920. Table A.1 X, M y PIB en millones de dólares de 1970, para efectos de cálculo de la I+E/PIB.
1920-1984 - Bulmer-Thomas (1987). Datos de X y M en dólares corrientes.
1950-1974 - BCCR (1976) COSTA RICA 25 AÑOS EN ESTADISTICAS ECONOMICAS 1950-1974. P. 53-54.
1975-1976 BCCR (1977) DATOS SOCIOECONÓMICOS DE COSTA RICA.
1950-2003, M y X en dólares corrientes MIDEPLAN/SIDES (2004) SISTEMA DE INDICADORES SOBRE DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE.
1998-2002 - MAG-SEPSA. Boletín Estadístico Agropecuario No. 14. Datos de X y M en USD y PIB a precios corrientes.

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Cuadro 332
COSTA RICA: TIPOS DE CAMBIO DEL COLÓN CON RESPECTO AL $ EEUU DE 1890 A 2003





AñoTasa de cambio ONE-DGETasa de cambio libreTipo de cambio IICE-UCRTipo de cambio BCCR 2004
18901,51


18911,58


18921,95


18932,25


18942,48


18952,42


18962,34


18972,29


18982,71


18992,81


19002,27


19012,16


19022,13


19032,13


19042,13


19052,09


19062,09


19072,12


19082,16


19092,12


19102,11
2,11
19112,13
2,13
19122,12
2,12
19132,12
2,12
19142,172,172,17
19152,572,572,57
19162,542,542,54
19173,773,773,77
19184,474,474,47
19193,923,923,92
19203,343,343,34
19214,434,434,43
19224,354,354,35
19234,524,524,52
19244,004,004,00
19254,004,004,00
19264,004,004,00
19274,004,004,00
19284,004,004,00
19294,004,004,00
19304,004,004,00
19314,004,004,00
19324,404,404,40
19334,554,554,55
19344,254,554,25
19355,944,555,94
19366,136,166,13
19375,615,655,61
19385,615,655,61
19395,615,705,61
19405,615,845,61
19415,615,665,61
19425,615,535,61
19435,615,535,61
19445,615,595,61
19455,615,855,61
19465,606,255,60
19476,466,465,60
1948
7,785,60
1949
8,705,60
1950
7,655,605,64
1951
6,755,605,64
1952
6,655,605,64
1953
6,655,605,64
1954
6,655,605,64
1955
6,655,605,64
1956
6,655,605,64
1957
6,655,605,64
1958
6,655,605,64
1959
6,655,605,64
1960
6,655,605,64
1961
6,655,945,97
1962
6,656,626,64
1963
6,656,626,64
1964
6,656,626,64
1965
6,656,626,64
1966
6,656,626,64
1967
7,766,626,64
1968
7,236,626,64
1969
7,016,626,64
1970
6,656,626,64
1971
8,606,626,64
1972

6,626,64
1973

6,626,65
1974

7,908,09
1975

8,548,57
1976

8,548,57
1977

8,548,57
1978

8,548,57
1979

8,548,57
1980

9,529,56
1981

19,7921,42
1982

38,5338,46
1983

41,1241,09
1984

44,1344,53
1985

50,3750,51
1986

55,6556,02
1987

62,6662,77
1988

75,5375,80
1989

81,0581,51
1990

91,3491,61
1991

121,24122,50
1992

133,59134,50
1993

141,90142,19
1994

156,55157,07
1995

179,08179,73
1996

207,39207,68
1997

232,38232,60
1998


257,19
1999


285,68
2000


308,19
2001


328,87
2002


359,82
2003


398,82
Nota:
El Colón sólo comenzó a utilizarse en 1900 en sustitución del Peso de Plata al instaurarse el Patrón Oro
La tasa de cambio entre 1890 y 1910 del colón es estimada, con base en que la relación $EEUU y Libra esterlina en ese período se mantuvo casi fija entre EEUU$ 4.85 y 4.87 por Libra esterlina, y se descontó el premio real registrado entre el peso de plata de Costa Rica y la Libra en cada año antes de 1900.
Ver Soley (1924), Grafica del cambio sobre dólares 1895-1926.
Fuentes:
1890-1947. ONE/DGE. Resúmenes Estadísticos y Anuarios Estadísticos.
1914-1971. C. González (1973) , Small Farmer Credit, AID, p. 18.
1910-1997. IICE-UCR (1997) p.241-3.
1950-2003. MIDPELAN/SIDES, fuente Banco Central.

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Cuadro 333
COSTA RICA: EXPORTACIONES TOTALES Y POR PRODUCTOS PRINCIPALES DE 1950 A 2008 EN MILLONES DE $EEUU, CANTIDADES Y PRECIO UNITARIO




















AñoTotal en millones de $ EEUUSubtotal Tradicionales   Café valor en millones de $ EEUUCantidad, sacos de 46 kilosPrecio por saco Banano valor en millones de $ EEUUCantidad toneladas métricasPrecio por tonelada   Carne valor en millones de $ EEUUCantidad en kilosPrecio por kilo  Azúcar valor en millones de $ EEUUCantidad de sacos: 46 kilosPrecio por sacoOtros productosOtros Agropecuarios y del marIndustrialesPerfeccionamiento ActivoZonas Francas
195055,0048,7017,80415,2042,9030,90222,50138,700,000,000,000,001,706,306,30



195162,2056,4022,00413,0053,3034,40216,80158,500,0015,000,300,000,000,005,80



195272,8063,4024,30456,5053,2038,40412,5093,000,10140,500,700,60112,605,309,50



195379,9069,9033,50613,0054,6035,80355,70100,600,0068,900,700,50133,004,0010,00



195484,6071,5035,20510,9068,9035,80355,30100,800,0038,900,600,50121,104,3013,00



195581,0071,0037,30613,0060,8033,10329,40100,500,0019,700,600,60170,503,4010,00



195667,4059,5033,90497,8068,1025,50232,40109,700,1076,300,800,000,2024,408,00



195783,3073,0040,70639,1063,7032,10310,30103,400,10365,000,400,1019,605,1010,30



195891,8078,1050,701.004,3050,5026,40301,6087,500,901,940,500,1026,103,8013,70



195976,6062,5040,00941,3042,5019,10213,2089,602,904,800,600,50150,003,3014,20



196084,3076,1045,401.015,2044,7024,60272,7090,204,307,200,601,80408,704,408,50



196184,1071,4044,901.130,4039,7020,70229,0090,402,704,800,603,10573,905,4012,90



196293,1075,0048,401.247,8038,8021,10292,0072,302,703,800,702,80519,605,4018,00



196394,8078,1045,301.189,1038,1022,70261,3086,905,107,100,705,00808,706,2016,90



1964113,4087,3048,201.110,9043,4028,00292,8095,606,008,700,705,10776,106,6026,80



1965111,5082,8046,801.047,8044,7028,40316,2089,803,104,500,704,50823,905,5029,10



1966135,3096,1052,701.193,5044,2029,40358,7082,005,307,000,808,701.406,506,2039,20



1967143,30102,8054,801.434,8038,2030,90371,0083,308,6010,400,808,501.356,506,3041,20



1968170,20119,0055,501.487,0037,3042,80553,3077,4012,0014,700,808,701.360,906,4051,90



1969189,00131,5055,701.471,7037,8051,40694,6074,0015,2016,600,909,201.363,006,7058,20



1970230,30168,1073,101.500,0048,7066,80855,8078,1018,1017,401,0010,101.465,206,9063,10



1971224,80156,7059,201.387,0042,7064,20922,3069,6020,4018,501,1012,901.806,507,1068,80



1972279,20201,8077,701.871,7041,5082,801.077,9076,8028,3023,301,2013,001.682,607,7079,00



1973344,30237,5094,001.584,8059,3090,601.178,5076,9031,4020,501,5021,502.463,008,70106,80



1974440,10281,70125,001.958,7063,8098,101.037,5094,6034,2028,301,2024,401.517,4016,10158,60



1975493,10320,8096,701.676,1057,70144,001.105,30130,3032,0029,801,1048,101.526,1031,50172,50



1976592,70367,90154,201.393,50110,70148,701.068,80139,1040,4030,301,3024,601.606,5015,30225,00



1977828,00529,30319,101.467,40217,50150,301.003,00149,9044,2031,901,4015,701.482,6010,60298,90



1978863,50559,40313,601.873,90167,40169,801.058,10160,5060,1034,601,7015,901.489,1010,70304,1071,40232,70

1979934,30605,20315,702.119,60148,90190,401.024,70185,8081,6031,602,6017,501.497,8011,70329,1050,80278,30

19801.001,60566,80247,901.560,90158,80207,50973,20213,2070,7026,002,7040,701.573,9025,90434,8069,10365,70

19811.007,00580,80240,102.093,50114,70224,801.002,30224,3073,9033,202,2042,001.567,4026,80426,2052,70373,50

1982870,40534,70236,902.041,30116,10228,101.012,90225,2053,1024,302,2016,601.191,3013,90335,7053,50282,20

1983961,10526,30230,202.356,5097,70240,301.012,00237,5031,9013,902,3023,901.173,9020,40434,8063,90282,3088,50
19841.123,80597,20267,202.456,50108,80251,001.020,10246,1043,5020,502,1035,501.928,3018,40526,6053,40355,80117,40
19851.081,60588,40310,102.634,80117,70212,20855,60248,0055,7028,102,0010,40695,7015,00493,2063,80288,80140,60
19861.233,00692,10391,902.053,70190,80216,80944,10229,6072,3036,672,0011,101.388,608,00540,90104,70288,90140,307,00
19871.302,30650,60334,503.014,10111,00242,10985,60245,7061,5028,212,2012,501.899,506,60651,70115,60347,90168,2020,00
19881.448,80636,40316,402.599,90121,70255,701.055,00242,4052,6023,802,2011,70931,7012,50812,40165,60383,10221,6042,00
19891.694,10661,40286,202.836,30100,90307,201.267,10242,4049,7021,152,3018,301.321,7013,801.032,70199,90478,50277,3077,00
19901.768,00734,10345,403.041,00113,60315,001.430,00220,3048,6018,802,6025,101.362,0018,401.033,90213,70413,70312,6094,00
19911.899,30754,20263,603.144,6083,80396,601.538,40257,8069,3026,462,6024,701.941,0012,701.145,10215,10518,40266,60145,00
19922.385,20837,70201,603.220,1062,60562,601.801,30312,3044,0017,312,5029,502.502,3011,801.547,50257,90664,00391,50234,10
19932.625,50858,00201,603.143,8064,10564,801.833,90308,0063,7025,742,5027,902.092,7013,301.767,50282,20726,50485,20273,60
19942.878,20948,10307,602.878,60106,90561,001.875,10299,2051,0022,472,3028,602.522,5011,301.930,10320,50845,40420,80343,40
19953.475,901.187,20417,302.793,40149,40680,202.022,10336,4043,6021,162,1046,103.170,7014,502.288,70427,10951,80475,20434,60
19963.758,401.103,10385,403.442,30112,00631,102.102,60300,2042,2020,802,0044,402.457,7018,102.655,30526,301.107,20378,80643,00
19974.205,501.049,20402,302.705,50148,70577,302.019,00285,9028,3012,902,2041,302.180,7018,903.156,30716,801.121,00427,20891,30
19985.525,601.142,70409,402.918,20140,30667,502.150,10310,5024,0010,242,3041,803.358,0012,404.382,90757,801.244,40444,501.936,20
19996.662,40969,40288,702.801,80103,10623,502.087,20298,7027,2013,602,0030,003.231,709,305.693,00573,501.134,70396,103.588,80
20005.849,70877,80272,002.854,8095,30546,501.975,00276,7030,7014,602,1028,603.025,009,504.972,00526,601.090,20404,702.956,30
20015.021,40738,80161,802.769,8058,40516,001.859,60277,5025,5011,102,3035,503.624,009,804.282,60539,601.029,30366,402.347,40
20025.263,50691,10165,102.548,6064,80477,501.693,60281,9021,508,802,4027,002.941,509,204.572,40565,001.022,70354,102.630,60
20036.102,20793,80193,602.665,4072,60553,101.940,80285,0022,309,702,3024,802.383,9010,405.308,30596,101.077,20331,703.303,30
20046.301,50800,70197,602.360,1083,70543,301.915,40283,7024,208,402,9038,104.490,508,505.500,70671,601.208,10373,303.247,80
20057.026,40757,20232,702.117,10109,90481,101.674,90287,3013,705,202,6029,703.294,909,006.269,10771,501.425,30388,403.683,90
20068.199,80915,20225,801.891,50119,40620,202.053,30302,1026,709,702,8042,503.705,0011,507.284,60904,101.648,40459,404.272,70
20079.337,001.002,50251,901.969,60127,90673,102.159,20311,7028,2010,202,8048,703.156,0015,408.334,60958,701.878,00472,405.025,50
20089.675,301.071,90308,002.182,20141,20688,601.952,30352,7040,9013,803,0034,401.920,3017,908.603,401.050,302.325,80361,104.866,30
Fuente:
MIDEPLAN/SIDES con base en BCCR

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